The Negras, Sabado 16 de Diciembre de 2017

 

Created in 1987, it is the first marine-terrestrial Natural Park of Andalusia, includes the municipalities of Almeria, Níjar and Carboneras, is located in the zone of the end of the same name, in the suroriental end of the province of Almeria. Its 33,663 You have of dead ground are catalogued as Zone of Special Protection for the Birds and in addition is including in the listing of humedales of international importance (Agreement RAMSAR). Also we were with zones whose climatic conditions of dryness are similar to which they exist in extensive territories of Africa of the North or Oriente.medio, which identifies east place as the most barren enclave of Western Europe. In spite of it and of its apparent desert aspect it locks up life forms very peculiar animal and vegetable, that have managed to adapt to extreme conditions of dryness. Of great ecological interest, it includes one of the more beautiful coastal strips of the Mediterranean Sea, laid out by cliffs and splashed of small and solitary coves, extensive beaches and reefs. In addition we have to the Mountain range of Cabo de Gata that is one of the bulks of volcanic origin of Europe. In 1997 Reserve of the Biosphere by UNESCO was declared. In the terrestrial botanical aspect, it is possible to emphasize that in the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Ni'jar, they exist important formation of scrubs and herbaceous formed by cornicabra, matagallo, aulaga morisca, esparto and palmito (only European native palm), in addition to the native species, like dragoncillo of Cabo de Gata or the clavelina of the Cabo. When we submerged in its crystalline waters we were with plains of muds and sands and the rocky bottoms, that are the prolongation under the water of the volcanic mountain range, are developed extensive prairies of oceanic Posidonia, that they feed and they shelter to great amount of species of fish, moluscos and crustaceans. Of the marine fauna we can emphasize cabracho, the sawhorse and the little king. Also it offers a great wealth to us of terrestrial fauna, being able to mention 3 species of amphibians, 13 of reptiles, 17 of mammals and 101 of birds.

Nature of Park Flora and fauna Níjar, and his region, is framed within unit biogeográfica Murcian-native of Almeri'a, and we have seen as it has characteristics climatic (subbarren with high humidity average and high evaporation and exhibition to pave) and edafológicas with grounds and relief volcanic of little subjection, which they influence in the presence of a weak vegetation able to take advantage of the little rainfall and a edáfica vegetation, that does not depend on the precipitations and that adapt to the ground or hidden precipitations to survive, great variety and wealth. It is a ground of Mediterranean vegetation that represents one of the florísticas units here more singulars of the Peninsula with numerous singularities, like the palmito (Chamaerops humilis), only native palm of the continent, the lentisco, the arcs and azufaifos (Ziziphus Lotus), prodigy of adaptation to means. The scrub and the thorny forest of little branches predominate on the hoisted one, which imposes in this habitat the predominance, with respect to fauna, of insects and vertebrates. The presence animal of Níjar, is complemented with the reptiles, amphibians and birds that live in the humedales of the Cabo de Gata, next to a modest representation of mammals. In one talks about the fauna and marine, so rich flora and conserved well, we will divide it in four ecosystems for a easier exhibition. Barren zone: Volcanic sands and coastal cliff, dunes, sandy grounds and saladares Espeparia zone: The scrub and the thorny forest (the mount slope boulevards, Serrata and hills and precipices) Dry zone of orchards: The tree (the Colativí, Níjar and the orchards of the coast, Fernán Perez, the Hortichuelas and the Well of the Friars) Barren zone Volcanic sands and coastal cliff, dunes sandy grounds and saladares In the zone influenced by the surge some live líquenes specialized and small seaweed. They are steep of vertical wall where we found some redoubt vegetal in cavities and landings. The vegetation is adapted to support the salinity, like hinojo sailor (Crithmum maritimum) and the saladinas (Lycium intricatum). In beaches, where organic rest with the surge can arrive, we found the caterpillar of sea (marine Cakile). The dunes of the coast, shelter a little vegetation, between which it dominates Cottony compound (Otanthus Maritimus) and the Elymus Factus. In the strip of movable dunes, we found gramíneas like the Barrón (arundinacea Ammophila arenaira). More moved away of the water, in semi-portable dunes, with the presence of camefíticas species, like Bolina or Pegamoscas (Ononis natrix ramosissima). In fixed dunes, we found tarayales of boveana Tomarix and species halófilas like the Limonium delicat um, and where there is greater humidity, the great almajos (insipid scorpiurus) like the fruticosa Sarcocomia that in this zone we can find in brackish pools. On the pastizal, barronal and low scrub, emphasize the cupolas of the azufaifos, under which to a microworld of numerous vegetal species and animals are hidden, that are near the sea here. Finally, in the superior zone of cliffs and in volcanic slopes, we have the comical, the retamales and some lentisco. Also we tripped over small wood of palmitos and black hawthorns that alternate themselves with tomillares, efedras, bufalagas, pegamoscas, orovales, etc., which they complete with his indicated nature North African, a unique picture of Europe.

In these places they abound the hocicuda viper (Vipera latasti), the bastard snake and the one of stairs, the ocelado lizard, eslizón tridáctilo and the running toad, like representatives of the amphibians and reptiles, between the mammals we can be found with the Moorish sprocket wheel, musarañas, some fox that approach mainly until the coast and, rabbits and hares. It is here where they grow and they develop most of species of edáfica vegetation with exclusive varieties in the world and where we found the birds aquatic, centered mainly in the area of reserve of Marinas-Amoladeras and the old lagoon that today forms the salt mines of Cabo de Gata. These zones constitute the zones of better as much summer observation, in which we can study to flamenco, storks, garcetas and many larolimícolas which Europe, Africa arrive from and other zones of also decrepit Andalusia and, bee-eaters, this, that go towards the esteparia zone, like winter, when they arrive avefrías, alcaravanes, trompeteros camachuelos, etc., and is equally important as base of migratory birds, between which are tórtolas, currucas, little kings, fish trap, etc., and permanent like earthly marismeña, mochuelo, kestrel. More the interior, the mount under shows the typical scrub to us of degradation of the steppe. Tarayales: Site populated with tarayes// Taray: Shrub of the family of those of the Tamaricáceas, that grows until after meters of height, with branches mimbreñas of reddish crust, leaves glaucas, slight, abrazadoras in the base, elliptical and with acute end, small, globosas flowers, in lateral ears, with incarnated chalice and white petals, and dry, capsular fruit, of three black divisions, and seeds. It is common in the borders of the rivers (definition R.A.E.) Halófilo: It is said of the plants that live in lands where the salts abound (definition R.A.E.) Saltwort: Each one of the plants that give barilla (definition R.A.E.) Barrón: Perennial plant of the family of the Gramíneas, with right stems of near a meter of height, coiled, sharp leaves and glaucas, and flowers in panoja yellowish and cylindrical, with short hairs. It grows in marine sandy grounds and it serves for consolidarlos. (definition R.A.E.) Birds: Set of the birds of a country or region (definition R.A.E.) The scrub and the forest under thorny. The mount slope Boulevards, serrata and hills and precipices. The espartal, to aulagar and to tomillar composes the vast extensions of degradation scrub (vegetation adapted to the human presence) that, from the cutting and it burns of the weak preexisting wooded base (high ligneous scrub), dominates to the slopes and hills of practically all the region. In spite of his doubtless botanical interest, it forms the zone of more insipid landscape, cheered solely for small oases of palms, chumberas and you toot or agaves of high pitaco, next to isolated old olive groves, almendrales and fig trees. The dominant fauna in the region is the insects, abounding in the first place the ortópteros (religious Mantis), the himenópteros (ants lasius, bees), coleopters (cicadas) and dípteros (flies, mosquitos, tábanos etc.), whose presence never gets to be annoying nor excessive safe in places with cattle presence, also we will find here to the small lizard colirroja, the salamanquesas, lizards and eslizones next to toads, frogs and the snake of horseshoe. Also it will appear the fox, the careto dormouse, topillo, tejón, the bat and until the wild boar and, of course, the rabbit. Of between the birds we will emphasize mochuelo, the carrack, the bee-eater, the real owl, the zurita dove, the zorzal and the perdiz.

Dry zone of orchards The tree. The colativí, Níjar and the orchards of the coast, Fernán Perez, the Hortichuelas, the Well of the Friars In the small wooded enclaves of Genoveses, San jOse, precipice of the Black, Apricots and Bitter Water, near the Colativí can be found rest of old forests of oaks and small arboreal groupings witnesses of rainier times. It is from the Colativí towards the south by slopes of Alhamilla Mountain range, in Inox, Huebro and Villa, where we found the best conditions of ground and humidity of the region. The water of the springs, the shade of the riscos and the agricultural work have favored the appearance del greater "green oasis" of the region, where we can find unit of olma, carob tree, chestnut tree, walnut, eucalyptus, pines, cattles, olive trees, fig trees, palms and a great variety of fruit trees and trees of irrigated land between which it dominates naranjo. The orchards and bancales in high mount maintain testimony of cultures and hoisted of dry land that alternated with native species. Also they are contiguous and they hold often the bancales with chumberas here and you toot. Next to the watered drains and precipices it is the rush, the cane and sinfín of flowers, olorosas plants, shrubs and trepadoras. The height and the greater humidity, as well as the temperature difference towards lower values, cause a slight reduction in the fauna of invertebrates, clearer in the zones of intensive culture and due to the fumigated agriculturist, being in general the same one. Between the reptiles and amphibians we will be able to name to the water snake (Natrix maura) and some galápago leprous (mauremys caspica) and of between the mammals, rustic mouse and the rat, although very controlled by foxes, snakes and other predators that find splendid refuges in the high, full zone of caves, cracks and holes in balates of stone of the bancales. Aside from rapaces, owls, mochuelos and other trasnochadores, the birds are here of less bearing in general, with the roqueros airplanes (Hirundo rupestri) collabas black (Oenanthe leucura), real billhooks (Apus melva), to mir them, hoopoes and sparrows, coal miners and finches, among others. The coastal platform The marine bottoms. The prairies of posidonia The Natural Park account with a protected marine extension of 12,000 You have, corresponding to one mile marine from the coast, with more than thousand species between flora and fauna, that does that as a whole, given described the geologic aspects of vulcanism, can be spoken of biotopo sailor of first order. The cliffs, that represent the greater percentage in the coast of Níjar, have one varied continuation under the water, profusely of grottos, caves, walls, extraplomos, blocks and typical magmatic outcrops of volcanic génesis and marine erosion, generators of one of the more beautiful marine bottoms and better conserved of the Mediterranean Sea. The rocky composition and the clarity of their waters, of up to 18-20 meters in optimal conditions, turn it a paradise for the contemplativo and photographic diving. In some places, like Mónsul or Rodalquilar, we can enjoy this so single beauty to a meter of depth, being able, until the most timid swimmers, to be surprised of this unusual wealth. It will be from the 5 meters and until the 20 where the most experienced divers they enjoy a unique spectacle which we will divide for its better understanding in three bottoms: Sand bottom With variety of thickness in the sands, it shows the fine one greater depth, seated in a bottom muddy with fanerógamas marine, that are, more than seaweed, true plants with flowers, a rich fauna camouflaged between sediments: bivalvos moluscos like the coquinas, to chir them, like cañailla the cephalopod and, gasterópodos, etc eggs nautical, like jibia. Also sprocket wheels and other equinodermos, as the sand star; varied crustaceans of type crab and an endless ones of fish like salmonete, the Herrera, tordo, etc.

Fondo de rocas

En él se encuentra, a poca profundidad, la cubierta vegetal repleta de algas, esponjas, madréporas, anémonas, falso coral, anélidos, moluscos, erizos y estrellas, como la purpúrea y peces de colores como el pez Músico o Reyezuelo, el Verrugallo, el Pez Verde, la Mojarras y a mayor profundidad, el Mero, la Morena y el Rascacio. Todos ellos encuentran grandes cantidades de alimentos entre las algas y refugio en las grietas, en un delicado equilibrio.

Llanuras de posidonia

Es la posidonia una fanerógama con flores, hojas, rizomas y raíces. Forma amplias praderas sustentadoras de la producción primaria, la oxigenación e incluso influye en el movimiento de las masas de agua. Asentada inicialmente en fondo rocoso a 20 m. de profundidad, es poblada por numerosas especies de equinodermos y cefalópodos (pulpo común), la nacra (bivalvo gigante) y las estrellas rojas.

Curiosidades

Entre las muchas curiosidades de la comarca podrán ver el Palmito (Chamaerops humilis), única palmera autóctona europea.

El azufaifo (Ziziphus lotus) bajo el cual encontramos un verdadero ecosistema completo y una serie de endemismos botánicos, como la Alaga mora, el Dragoncillo del Cabo, el Androcybium europaeum, bulbo de sorprendente floración invernal; el Jopo de lobo (Cynomorium coccineum), y el Chumberillo de lobo, que es el único en Europa que desarrolla de forma natural un biotipo cactoide; la Dianthus charidemi, clavellina bella y delicada con flores blancas de cinco pétalos, el Antirrhinum charidemi, Sideritis osteoxyla, Teucrium charidemi y otras rarezas exclusivas de la comarca, que encuentran un suelo ideal entre las andesitas y los albardinales influidos por la maresía y la salinidad del suelo.

De entre las aves, destacar el Flamenco, el Camachuelo trompetero, el Chorlitejo patinegro y la alondra Dupont, que se cría en estos parajes esteparios.

En barco por la costa

La zona marítima del Parque Natural ocupa el ancho de una milla marina (1851’820 metros) mar adentro, a lo largo de casi 45 kilómetros de litoral, lo que implica un total de unas 12.200 Has., teniendo su límite Norte es la desembocadura del Barranco Hondo, al Norte de Mesa Roldán y por el Sur su frontera está en la Rambla del Agua, cerca de Retamar.

Sus aguas presentan la temperatura media más elevada de toda la Península, con 17’1º C (periodo 1991-94) y una amplitud térmica de 7’5º C. Esta calidez es debida a las altas medias veraniegas y a un curioso y persistente "minianticiclón" (zona de altas presiones relativas) que suele posicionarse en la zona entre primeros de Diciembre y mediados de enero, cuando más bajas deberían ser las temperaturas, ocasionando un tiempo soleado y una mar en calma a la que los marineros de la zona llaman "aceitosa" o "mar blanca", debido a su famoso efecto visual de reflejo.

Probablemente éstas sean las aguas más limpias del Mar Mediterráneo, con una visibilidad media de 16 metros, aunque sobre rocas y en óptimas condiciones pueden llegar a los 21.

Con un porcentaje cercano al 50% de días en calma al año nos encontramos frente a una costa de mar relativamente tranquila en la que es muy temido el temporal de Poniente, que puede llegar a producir corrientes cercanas a la costa muy rápidas en dirección Este.

Desde el Cabo de Gata hasta Mesa Roldán las corrientes de costa suelen ser de dirección Suroeste (SO), donde predomina el Levante desde julio hasta octubre y el Poniente de noviembre a junio. En esta zona de la costa el temporal de Poniente es cortado en parte por la Sierra litoral y, aunque se le supone menos peligro de alejar los barcos de la costa, tiene fama de ser molesto pero no tan fuerte, si bien puntualmente ha ocasionado grandes catástrofes, pues los puertos naturales de esta costa no resguardan cuando los vientos son de componente Este o rolan hacia el Sureste, y es precisamente el Levante el que se torna muy peligroso para cualquier fondeadero, cala o puerto de la comarca.

Submarine trip The volcanic mountain range has a submarine continuation and beauties in its cliffs that are only possible to enjoy from the sea. From Cove Fig tree to the end of the Esparto the boiler of the Friars extends, of five kilometers of diameter, that has been eroded by the sea and presents/displays a unique cliff landscape on world-wide scale formed by tufas, breaches, domes, taps and sediments of up to 200 meters of height. Less impressive they are not the walls, coves and reefs that arrive until the Cabo and towards the North, the yellow terraces and eroded forms of the boiler of Rodalquilar between the Hill of the Wolves and the Jewel. One of the best forms to recreate that it offers east coastal corner is to cross it in boat, doing stopped in the places where to arrive at them by earth it involves a greater difficulty, to enjoy landscapes unusual and to enjoy clean and crystalline water baths. Paradise for the lovers of the diving and photographs submarine, where they can discover sinfín of species animals and vegetables between which are the prairies of posidonia, the anemones, coralline, ascidias, etc., in danger by the exhaustive or unsuitable arts of fishing for the preservation of the marine bottoms. In the marine zone of the Natural Park the artisan fishing is only allowed, that not in all its scope, since zones vetoed for this activity exist. The mere one, the lubina, colored person and other species in difficult balance can be observed and be photographed, but they are protected by Law and its fishing is not allowed. Completely it is prohibited the submarine sport fishing with bottles as well as the harvesting of marine, gasterópodos, bivalvos organisms, cephalopods and other species of flora and fauna. The sport fishing with cane from the coast and boats is authorized, with the exception of the areas prohibited (zones of bath or frequented by swimmers or zones of dischargeprotection) considering sport fishing those inferior captures to 15 kg by boat and 2 kg by individual for earth cane fishing. The pecios or been shipwrecked naval structures are abundant in this coast of ancestral traffic and refuge of pirates. Of difficult location and protected by the norm we must ask for information in A. M. To and in the located schools of diving throughout the coast of the Natural Park, where we will find specialists who will inform to us and accompany in our route. Zones of High Protection are considered the enclaves of Cabo de Gata, Morrón of the Genoveses, Bare Hill End, End of the Polacra, Javana End, Small barren island of San Pedro and Punta of the Average Orange. Zones of High Protection: Spaces better conserved as much in the structure of the bottoms like in its ecological conditions. The fishing in Níjar Also the fishermen speak here of a reduction in the number of captures with respect to last times simultaneously that, paradoxicalally, praise the increase of quality and flavor of these. The reasons are varied again and peculiar: as the evaporation is high and the water contribution fresh water of the rivers and rains has descended lately, it has increased the salinity average. This produces that the more flavorful captures are of minor so large but (is famous here the prawn of the "song" of Almeria and other species that abound in the beril of the 200 meters, so near the coast, that the fishing boats get to make the task in 12 hours). In addition, the "dry ones" throughout the coast abound, where they lay eggs and the species and in nonexistent are fed, from Roldán Table to Cabo de Gata, the feared "suitcase", sobreexcesses of seaweed produced by the contributions of the boulevards with the rest of phosphates (agricultural installments) that when being disturbed release to nutrients generating seaweed that gets to flood the networks, driving away and contaminating the fishing. Surprising coast by their cleaning in that still they show the dolphins, twig some Cachalote (1994) and in that until recently jugueteaban the seals monk, fled by mutual incompatibility with human the fishing activity. The botanical stroll The wild Flora of the region of is admired by botanists worldwide. Zone of fragile balance, is today made the management of its protection and recovery. For that reason, in the relative thing to the Natural park, the authorization needs A. M. To for the starting, harvesting or cuts of numerous arboreal, arbustivas and subarbustivas species. If we made scientific studies or of another type, we must contact with the Agency or ask for information in the Center of Interpretation of the Amoladeras. Species Protected in the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Ni'jar including in the Catalogue Andalusian of Threatened Species of Special Interest and the mentioned ones in International Treaties subscribed by Spain. The ornithological stroll Classified like Zone of Special Protection of Birds (Z. And P. A.), it is a paradise for the fans to the ornithology. From the Amoladeras to the Salt mines of Cabo de Gata and by the steppe to the Natural Place of Alhamilla Mountain range, the only aid of prisms binocular and a good guide of birds we can enjoy sedentary, summer, invernantes, migradores birds of step and constants. It exists an observatory with information in the Salt mines, another one in the Amoladeras and a shelter. protection) considering sport fishing those inferior captures to 15 kg by boat and 2 kg by individual for earth cane fishing. The pecios or been shipwrecked naval structures are abundant in this coast of ancestral traffic and refuge of pirates. Of difficult location and protected by the norm we must ask for information in A. M. To and in the located schools of diving throughout the coast of the Natural Park, where we will find specialists who will inform to us and accompany in our route. Zones of High Protection are considered the enclaves of Cabo de Gata, Morrón of the Genoveses, Bare Hill End, End of the Polacra, Javana End, Small barren island of San Pedro and Punta of the Average Orange. Zones of High Protection: Spaces better conserved as much in the structure of the bottoms like in its ecological conditions. The fishing in Níjar Also the fishermen speak here of a reduction in the number of captures with respect to last times simultaneously that, paradoxicalally, praise the increase of quality and flavor of these. The reasons are varied again and peculiar: as the evaporation is high and the water contribution fresh water of the rivers and rains has descended lately, it has increased the salinity average. This produces that the more flavorful captures are of minor so large but (is famous here the prawn of the "song" of Almeria and other species that abound in the beril of the 200 meters, so near the coast, that the fishing boats get to make the task in 12 hours). In addition, the "dry ones" throughout the coast abound, where they lay eggs and the species and in nonexistent are fed, from Roldán Table to Cabo de Gata, the feared "suitcase", sobreexcesses of seaweed produced by the contributions of the boulevards with the rest of phosphates (agricultural installments) that when being disturbed release to nutrients generating seaweed that gets to flood the networks, driving away and contaminating the fishing. Surprising coast by their cleaning in that still they show the dolphins, twig some Cachalote (1994) and in that until recently jugueteaban the seals monk, fled by mutual incompatibility with human the fishing activity. The botanical stroll The wild Flora of the region of is admired by botanists worldwide. Zone of fragile balance, is today made the management of its protection and recovery. For that reason, in the relative thing to the Natural park, the authorization needs A. M. To for the starting, harvesting or cuts of numerous arboreal, arbustivas and subarbustivas species. If we made scientific studies or of another type, we must contact with the Agency or ask for information in the Center of Interpretation of the Amoladeras. Species Protected in the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Ni'jar including in the Catalogue Andalusian of Threatened Species of Special Interest and the mentioned ones in International Treaties subscribed by Spain. The ornithological stroll Classified like Zone of Special Protection of Birds (Z. And P. A.), it is a paradise for the fans to the ornithology. From the Amoladeras to the Salt mines of Cabo de Gata and by the steppe to the Natural Place of Alhamilla Mountain range, the only aid of prisms binocular and a good guide of birds we can enjoy sedentary, summer, invernantes, migradores birds of step and constants. It exists an observatory with information in the Salt mines, another one in the Amoladeras and a shelter.





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